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It is widespread in tropical Africa, occurring in Senegal, Mali, Guinea, Guinea Bissau,
Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ghana, D.ahomey, Nigeria, Cameroun, S. Tome, Gabon, Zaire, Sudan,
Uganda and Tanzania (see distribution map).
Erect shrub or small tree to 15m high, bark grey; slush pale brown, exuding a bitter-
tasting white 1 itex; branchlets markedly whorled, angular, covered with white lenticels.
Leaves whorled, simple, stipules absent; petiole 8-2 5cm long, shallowly grooved above;
blade elliptic to slightly oblanceolate, 10-18. 5cm long, 3.5-7cm wide, apex usually gradually
and shortly acuminate, base cuneate, margins entire, papyraceous to coriaceous, upper
surface shiny-green, dull medium green below, midrib impressed above, major laterial veins
8-16 pairs, more prominent below. Inflorescence Escitalopram Tablets puberulous, up to 12cm long, rachis stout,
up to Escitalopram 20mg 7cm long, repeatedly branching; in whorls with flowers in 3s at the end of the
ultimate branches. Sepals 5, ovate, c.2mm long, puberulous, often deflexed in fruit;
corolla creamy-white, up to 1cm long, lobes small. Fruit red, solitary or paired, ovoid/
drupe, c.6mm in diameter.
In Nigeria flowering January to May and July, fruiting April to November.
4. ESTABLISHED MODERN Escitalopram Oxalate PHARMACEUTICAL USES
The plant is a source of reserpine, used as hypotensives and CNS sedatives (Trease and
Evans, 1978; Nwaiwu, 1982).
5. FOLK MEDICINAL USES
One tablespoonful of the root and stem bark infusion mixed with Capsicum spp. taken 3
times daily cures malaria fever. Overdose is reported to be very dangerous.
Three or four spoonfuls of the infusion (in hot water) of two or three leaves of
R. vomitoria will induce vomiting and violent purgation as a treatment for constipation or
indigestion (Dalziel, 1937).
- 186 .-
An infusion of root bark mixed with spices cures jaundice and gastro-intestinal
Leaves of R. vomitoria are boiled with seven fruits of Xylopia aethiopica to treat
convulsions in children. The resulting solution is given to the child' to Escitalopram Cost drink and for
A decoction is applied externally to treat ascites. Sixty-one leaves of JR. vomitoria,
sixty-one leaves of Spondia monbin and seven fruits of Xylopia aethiopica are boiled
together, the Escitalopram Price decoction is then used for bathing the patient.
To induce labour and safe delivery in women 201 leaves of Escitalopram Oxalate Tablets R. vomitoria, leaves of
Indigofera macrophylla, the whole plant of Olyra latifolia and leaves of Cajanus cajan
are Escitalopram Online all boiled; the decoction when allowed to cool is drunk Escitalopram 30 Mg as a remedy against smallpox.
Root bark of R. vomitoria, ripe fruits of Piper guineense, seeds of Parkia
clappertoniana Clonazepam Escitalopram (locust bean) are cooked with snail. The soup so prepared is taken as a
cure for rheumatism.
A tablespoonful of powdered Escitalopram Clonazepam root bark mixed with local gin is given three times daily
as a cure for mental disorder. Latex from the leaves is used to treat general skin
disease (Lewis and Elvin-Lewis, 1977).
6. MAJOR CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS AND MEDICINAL PRODUCTS
Chemical constituents in Escitalopram Buy the roots include rescinnamine, and alkaloids such as
reserpoxidine, seredine, ajmaline and yohimbine.
From Cost Of Escitalopram the fruits, the following alkaloids have been isolated: tetrahydroalstonine,
rauvomitine, yohimbine and ajmaline - 17 - - (3,4, 5 trimethoxybenzoic acid (Iwu, 1983).
Amer and Court (1981) reported 19 alkaloids from leaves of R. vomitoria. These
include E-seco indole sarpagan, picrinine, akuammiline, heteroyohimbine oxidole, Yohimbine
and indolenine types. The most abundant were tetrahydroalsronine, aricine, isoreserpiline,
carapanaubine, reserpiline and rauvoxine.
Puri and Talala (1974) reported steroid - serpostero and some alkaloids.
7. HARVESTING, CONSERVING AND PREPARATION
The roots of the plant are harvested and careless exploitation can result in
depopulation of the species. The root bark, bark, leaves and fruit are all used for local
medicines. The roots and root bark are the main source of extractives such as reserpine,
rescinnamine, ajmaline and ajmalicine (UNCTAD/GATT).
8. ECONOMICS AND Purchase Escitalopram MARKETING
R. vomitoria is one of the most commercially important of the 86 Rauvolfia species
occurring in tropical and sub-tropical Escitalopram Prices areas. The cost per kg c.i.f . of cut Rauvolfia root
was reported to be Din. 8.50 in June 1986 and for Reserpine 0.55/g for lOOg lots in the
- 187 -
There are 22 UN registered sources of supply of reserpine in 8 Western European and
2 Eastern European countries,? of these sources are actually processors Escitalopram Canada of raw material
and the remainder are brokers or wholesalers (UNIDO, 1984). This gives some indication of
the importance of the drug and its raw material.
The largest producers of R. vomitaria are Zaire, Escitalopram Oxalate 10mg Mozambique and Rwanda. Escitalopram 10mg The demand
for Rauvolf ia-based products appears to be on the decline and unless markets are expanded
the prospects are not good Escitalopram 5mg (UNCTAD/GATT) .
Rauvolf ia vomitoria is not usually cultivated, it is collected as a wild plant. It is
said to be hardier than R. serpentina, coppices readily and is capable of growing in poor
soils. It. appears likely that the species could be propagated from seed.
10. MAJOR DISEASES
The plant is the wild host of Collar Crack in cocoa.
11. OTHER USES
The Escitalopram 30mg tree is suitable for live fencing and is common as an ornamental tree (Dalziel,
1937). R. Buy Escitalopram vomitoria root fed to cattle at levels ot 5,25 and 125mg/head/day have been
found to improve growth rate and food efficiency (Sherman et^ al . , 1958).
The seeds are used for making beads. The wood is fine-grained, whitish, turning red
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